University of Leicester Taekwon-Do Club

Types of Motion


Theory of Motion | Normal | Continuous | Fast | Connecting | Slow | Consecutive | Stamping


In the following descriptions, technique refers to the attack or block being used, and movement refers to the whole body movement, including the motion of the attacking or blocking tool along with Sine Wave, hip twist, and any other required movements of the body

Here is a nice presentation by Master Vones of ITF Germany, describing the types of motion and the differences between them: ITF Motion (you have to download and run it from your desktop).

The table below summarise the types of motion and their specifics. Details on each can be found on the corresponding pages.

Motion Wave Rise & Fall Breathing Techniques
Normal Motion One full Sine Wave Down-up-down One breath One
Continuous Motion One full Sine Wave per technique Down-up-down; down-up-down One inhale, one exhale per technique Two (most instances)
Seven (in Po-Eun)
Fast Motion One Full & one 2/3 Sine Wave Down-up-down; up-down One breath per technique Two
Connecting Motion One full Sine Wave Down-up-down One breath Two
Slow Motion One full Sine Wave Down-up-down One breath One


In the usual course of things, each technique is accompanied by one body movement and a single breath, with the finishing points of each at the same moment. Techniques should end with a snap, and breathing should end with a sharp exhalation. This allows for maximum power to be achieved. There should be a slight pause between each technique long enough to show when one move has finished and the next is about to begin.

Examples of Normal motion:

The entirety of Saju-Jirugi and Chon-Ji consist of normal motion.


Continuous motion links two or more techniques together with no pause between the end of one technique and the start of the next, while each technique still has its own defined movement. Breath in once then out in a continuous flow of air, but use a series of sharp exhalations to emphasise each subsequent technique. You should try to link the moments smoothly, such that they flow into one another demonstrating precision and grace. Continuous motion always starts with a block; the reason for this is to allow an instant response to an initial attack, either by blocking a second attack or by counterattacking. Continuous motion is performed with grace and beauty, allowing the movements to flow.

Instances of Continuous motion:

Dan-Gun 13-14 (low block/rising block)
Toi-Gye 7-8 (x-fist pressing block/twin vertical punch)
Po-Eun 6-12 & 24-30 (forefist pressing block to horizontal punch sequence)
Ge-Baek 5-6 (rising block, low block)
Ge-Baek 37-38 (sitting stance low guarding blocks)
Eui-Am 5-6 & 18-19 (down block/rising block)
Sam-Il 30-31 (inward block/punch)
Yoo-Sin 16-19 (hooking block/punch)
Yoo-Sin 20-21 & 25-26 (pressing block/rising block)
Ul-Ji 2-3 (pressing block/rising block)
So-San 52-53 & 57-58 (low block/punch)
So-San 71-72 (knifehand guarding block/punch)

FAST MOTION (Bbarun Dongjak)

Fast motion is urgent and aggressive; each technique still has its own movement, but with only a split-second pause between the first technique and the next. Breathing is a sharp exhalation, one breath per technique. Fast motion nearly always occurs for attacks, and is mostly used for two punches.

Instances of Fast motion:

Do-San 15-16 & 19-20 (obverse punch/reverse punch)
Yul-Gok 2-3 & 5-6 (sitting stance two punches)
Yul-Gok 9-10 & 13-14 (obverse punch/reverse punch)
Joong-Gun 15-16 & 18-19 (release from grab/reverse punch)
Hwa-Rang 18-19 (turning kick/turning kick to knifehand guarding block)
Choong-Moo 14-15 (turning kick/back kick)
Ge-Baek 3-4 (punches)
Ge-Baek 22-23 (turning kick/flying side kick)
Choong-Jang 46-47 (punches)
Yoo-Sin 2-3 (angle punches)
Yoo-Sin 34-35 & 36-37 (double forearm/low block)
Choi-Yong 21-22 (pressing blocks)
Ul-Ji 11 (x-stance drop)
So-San 5-6 & 7-8 (knifehand block/punch)
So-San 39-40 & 47-48 (punches)
Tong-Il 5-6 (punches)
Tong-Il 14-15 (punches)
Tong-Il 20-21 (punches)


Connecting motion always links two techniques using opposite arms, the movement of the first technique setting up for the second. Complete the techniques in one movement and with one exhalation, with no pause between the techniques.

Instances of Connecting motion:

Yul-Gok 16-17 & 19-20 (reverse hooking block/obverse punch)
Ge-Baek 9-10 & 29-30 (sitting stance scooping block/middle punch)
Yoo-Sin 10-11 & 14-15 (sitting stance scooping block/middle punch)
Moon-Moo 28-29 & 37-38 (sitting stance scooping block/middle punch)

SLOW MOTION (Neurin Dongjak)

Movement is performed slowly with a slow breath. This is used to emphasize an important technique and to demonstrate balance and control. Techniques should still be performed with appropriate muscle tension, however. Attacking or blocking techniques should still end with a snap, but focus or measuring techniques do not. Slow techniques should take roughly four seconds to complete.

Instances of Slow motion:

Joong-Gun 27 & 29 (palm pressing block)
Joong-Gun 30 (angle punch)
Toi-Gye 3 & 6 (backfist side back strike)
Toi-Gye 12 (side elbow thrust)
Kwang-Gae 2 & 3 (upset punches)
Kwang-Gae 10 & 11 (upward blocks)
Kwang-Gae 21 & 22 (pressing blocks)
Kwang-Gae 26 & 30 (fingertip thrusts)
Po-Eun 15 & 33 (twin horizontal elbow thrusts)
Juche 5 & 17 (consecutive middle side piercing kick / high reverse hooking kick )
Juche 26 (closed stance with a heaven hand )
Juche 40 (bending ready stance B / middle back piercing kick )


Consecutive motion is where two or more moves are performed by different tools in the same direction, or by the same tool in different directions.

Instances of Consecutive motion:

Kwang-Gae 13-14 & 17-18 (outward pressing kick-side piercing kick
Juche 43 (flying consecutive punch)
Yoo-Sin 55-56 & 58-59 (crescent kick-side piercing kick)
Choi-Yong 13-14 & 18-19 (high reverse hooking kick-middle side piercing kick)
Moon-Moo 50 & 53 (side checking kick-middle side thrusting kick)

STAMPING MOTION (Gurunun Dongjak)

Stamping motion is a specific way of moving which utilises the legs to generate power. The foot is brought up to the inner knee of the supporting leg, then stamps down on to the floor in the appropriate stance with force. Stamping motion is also used in patterns to develop strength in the legs.

A stamping motion into sitting stance uses the same action as a checking kick; the stamping motion in combination with hip twist helps to generate power, especially in the absence of a reaction hand movement, such as in san makgi. In walking stance, the foot forms the stance in the air and is stamped on the floor in this position.

Instances of Stamping motion:

Toi-Gye 13-18 (sitting stance san makgi)
Kwang-Gae 23 & 27 (sitting stance backfist strike)
Kwang-Gae 31 (walking stance high twin vertical punch)
Kwang-Gae 32 & 36 (walking stance middle twin upset punch)
Ge-Baek 39 & 40 (sitting stance san makgi)
Juche 8 & 20 (sitting stance high outward cross-cut strike )
Juche 41 (L-stance back fist horizontal strike )
Tong-Il 7 & 9 (L-stance high backhand outward strike), 17, 19 (L-stance backfist downward strike), 38 (walking stance high vertical punch), 43 (sitting stance san makgi)